Professor Ilkka Heiskanen’s intellectual and academic career extends over half a century. He has always characterized himself first and foremost as a methodologist. This has been visible in his publications, research projects and in the very numerous doctoral dissertations he has succesfully supervised. He has not hesitated in engaging constructively also in a number of political, administrative, cultural and other joint activities characterized by criticism, improvement and reform. He has always been suspicious of power, its overconcentration and the ensuing risks of illegitimate power.